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The two nations con- ■ Compare Uie principle laid down by Aristotle above, vol. The in- dependent development of constitutions now became rare ; the former laxer associations which had sub- sisted amongst the states, chiefly for festive objects, and seldom with a view to deliberation on matters connected with the policy of the nation at large, were supplanted by more extensive hegemonies, whilst the states which asserted them, drew the reins of their authority closer than before, and evinced a disposition to interfere with the internal order of the adjoining states. *) By means of the participation of Athens, pure and im- pinge elements here became mingled.
They were actuated by a similar spirit in their external pohcy, for in order to secure points of support without their own limits, they endeavoured to enter into alliance with states similarly situated with themselyes, and there- INTRODUCTION. 5 by to provide pledges for their internal constitation. But under the sway of the tyrants^ pohtical life had^ in the interior of them^ become matured for new changes^ and after their expulsion^ the ancient aristocracy was n Ot again restored, but the democratical piinciple im- petuously proclaimed itself amidst such remnants of that form of government as had chanced to survive. No good and lasting fruits could result from the efforts of the Ionian states ; they were too destitute of the vigour ' In the beautiful passage, 5.
Public domain books are our gateways to the past, representing a wealth of history, culture and knowledge that's often difficult to discover. 138 ; that it was done in Athens at the instigation of Mil- tiades, is stated in Pausan.
Marks, notations and other maiginalia present in the original volume will appear in this file - a reminder of this book's long journey from the publisher to a library and finally to you. Such an assertion can only have pro- ceeded from the most consummate effrontery.
Equally careless of the fate of the mother-country with the Achaeans, and perhaps influenced by their example, were the Italiots. Copyright infringement liabili^ can be quite severe. Both interest and pleasure concurred to promote a lively and extensive inter- course upon the seas of Greece, but there could be no inherent tendency to political union amongst these various maritime towns, island states, and mountain tribes, nor is the nation alone to be re- proached with the discord, from the baneful effects of which it still seems doomed to suffer. The event which, next to the above-mentioned migrations, exercised a great and decisive influence on the political development of the Greek states, was the Persian war. A broad line of distinction was henceforward drawn between Greeks and barbarians^ and^ not- withstanding the short-sighted policy of single states, afterwards led them to contract ties with them, or the political convulsions of their own country caused bands of mercenaries to enter their service, still the meanest Greek soldier who ate the bread of the great king, was fully conscious of his own supe- riority over the wretches who fought with gold instead of iron. About Google Book Search Google's mission is to organize the world's information and to make it universally accessible and useful. For the glorious triumphs by which it was signalized, like every struggle in which the native energy and coiurage of a people enable them to repulse the aggressions of foreign invaders, not only had the effect of securing Gre- cian freedom against the degrading yoke of the barbarians, but aroused the political energies of the people, and nerved and invigorated the national strength by which those victories had been achieved; whilst the battle of Marathon called up, almost as if by magic, a profusion of the fairest and choicest flowers of civilization and refinement, which still imparted beauty and lustre to the democracy, when Greece was desolated by the horrors of the Pelo- ponnesian wan Thehr previous vague and undefined feeling of liberty was now succeeded by the clear conviction of the inestimable value of independence, and the disgrace attending subjection to barbarian doming- INTRODUCTION. This continued to prevail till Alexander the Great, disregarding the distinction between the two nations, conceived the extravagant design of uniting Greeks and barbarians, and created the grotesque figures which we behold in the Ma- cedonian kingdoms, dressed up like Greeks, and proclaiming the degeneracy of the age. tinued in almost uninterrtl^ted political contact, either in peace or war, till the final extinction both of Grecian and Persian independence. The Achaeans were, however, wholly indifferent to the danger which menaced their country, and obstinately persisted in their ill-judged and selfish repose. The Thessalians, who possessed less stability of character than the Thebans^ like them were subject to the tyranny of the dynasts; at first, indeed^ in consequence of their enmity to the Aleuadae ", who were in the Persian interest, they displayed con- siderable inclination to fight for the great cause; but either the dynasts obtained the upper hand^, ^ If it be tnie that Themiitocles would not admit Hiero to the Olympic garnet, (Plat. When a nation is so swayed by passion as the Greeks were*, its political calculations are ge- nerally wavering and unsteady, and whilst it is carried away by the violence of the last impression, it grasps with avidity at the first prospect of ad- vantage that presents itself. But this resulted less from the depravation of the people than from the infamy of the leaders^ Timagenidas and Attar ginus ^\ The patriotic enthusiasm which had been excited amongst the people ^ was soon extinguished by the efforts of the dynasts.